One way to check if you have a bad hard drive is to use some tools or software for checking hard drive errors. If you have windows OS, you can scan for hard disk error in the system tools -> Disk Defragmenter. This is also useful but there are also software that you can use on checking your hdd errors or bad sectors. I shared a video bellow on checking hard disk failures or bad sectors.
HDD Checking for bad sectors or any errors.
I hope this one helps you for checking your hdd errors.